Monday, September 29, 2008
182 km (113.1 miles)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC REGION
horizontal +/- 7.4 km (4.6 miles); depth +/- 3.1 km (1.9 miles)
Nph=012, Dmin=168.8 km, Rmss=0.35 sec, Gp=342°,
- This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
Sunday, September 28, 2008
Friday, September 26, 2008
Thursday, September 25, 2008
Wednesday, September 24, 2008
The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a 1-5 rating based on the hurricane's present intensity. This is used to give an estimate of the potential property damage and flooding expected along the coast from a hurricane landfall. Wind speed is the determining factor in the scale, as storm surge values are highly dependent on the slope of the continental shelf and the shape of the coastline, in the landfall region. Note that all winds are using the U.S. 1-minute average.
Category One Hurricane:
Winds 74-95 mph (64-82 kt or 119-153 km/hr). Storm surge generally 4-5 ft above normal. No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes, shrubbery, and trees. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage. Hurricane Lili of 2002 made landfall on the Louisiana coast as a Category One hurricane. Hurricane Gaston of 2004 was a Category One hurricane that made landfall along the central South Carolina coast.
Category Two Hurricane:
Winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kt or 154-177 km/hr). Storm surge generally 6-8 feet above normal. Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down. Considerable damage to mobile homes, poorly constructed signs, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape routes flood 2-4 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings. Hurricane Frances of 2004 made landfall over the southern end of Hutchinson Island, Florida as a Category Two hurricane. Hurricane Isabel of 2003 made landfall near Drum Inlet on the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane.
Category Three Hurricane:
Winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kt or 178-209 km/hr). Storm surge generally 9-12 ft above normal. Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtainwall failures. Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large trees blown down. Mobile homes and poorly constructed signs are destroyed. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by battering from floating debris. Terrain continuously lower than 5 ft above mean sea level may be flooded inland 8 miles (13 km) or more. Evacuation of low-lying residences with several blocks of the shoreline may be required. Hurricanes Jeanne and Ivan of 2004 were Category Three hurricanes when they made landfall in Florida and in Alabama, respectively.
Category Four Hurricane:
Winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt or 210-249 km/hr). Storm surge generally 13-18 ft above normal. More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small residences. Shrubs, trees, and all signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Extensive damage to doors and windows. Low-lying escape routes may be cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Major damage to lower floors of structures near the shore. Terrain lower than 10 ft above sea level may be flooded requiring massive evacuation of residential areas as far inland as 6 miles (10 km). Hurricane Charley of 2004 was a Category Four hurricane made landfall in Charlotte County, Florida with winds of 150 mph. Hurricane Dennis (pdf) of 2005 struck the island of Cuba as a Category Four hurricane.
Category Five Hurricane:
Winds greater than 155 mph (135 kt or 249 km/hr). Storm surge generally greater than 18 ft above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Severe and extensive window and door damage. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Major damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500 yards of the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5-10 miles (8-16 km) of the shoreline may be required. Only 3 Category Five Hurricanes have made landfall in the United States since records began: The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, Hurricane Camille (1969), and Hurricane Andrew in August, 1992. The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane struck the Florida Keys with a minimum pressure of 892 mb--the lowest pressure ever observed in the United States. Hurricane Camille struck the Mississippi Gulf Coast causing a 25-foot storm surge, which inundated Pass Christian. Hurricane Katrina (pdf), a category 5 storm over the Gulf of Mexico, was still responsible for at least 81 billion dollars of property damage when it struck the U.S. Gulf Coast as a category 3. It is by far the costliest hurricane to ever strike the United States. In addition, Hurricane Wilma (pdf) of 2005 was a Category Five hurricane at peak intensity and is the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
300 PM EDT FRI SEP 19 2008
..CORRECTED FOR MONTH IN GUSTAV PARAGRAPH...
FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...
TROPICAL CYCLONE ACTIVITY DURING AUGUST WAS NEAR AVERAGE...WITH FOUR
TROPICAL STORMS FORMING DURING THE MONTH. ONE OF THESE BECAME A MAJOR HURRICANE. ON AVERAGE...THREE TROPICAL STORMS FORM DURING AUGUST WITH TWO BECOMING HURRICANES.
EDOUARD WAS A SHORT-LIVED TROPICAL STORM THAT FORMED AS A DEPRESSION IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ABOUT 85 MILES SOUTHEAST OF THE MOUTH OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER ON 3 AUGUST. THE DEPRESSION MOVED SLOWLY WESTWARD TO WEST-NORTHWESTWARD AND STRENGTHENED INTO A TROPICAL STORM LATER THAT DAY...ITS INTENSITY REACHING 50 MPH EARLY ON 4 AUGUST.
EDOUARD WEAKENED SLIGHTLY BUT RE-STRENGTHENED LATE ON 4 AUGUST AS IT APPROACHED THE UPPER-TEXAS COAST. EDOUARD MADE LANDFALL AROUND 7 AM CDT 5 AUGUST BETWEEN HIGH ISLAND AND SABINE PASS...AT THE MC FADDIN NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE...WITH MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ESTIMATED TO BE 65 MPH. EDOUARD MOVED INLAND AND WEAKENED TO A DEPRESSION LATE ON 5 AUGUST...BEFORE DISSIPATING OVER NORTHWEST TEXAS LATE ON 6 AUGUST. THE EFFECTS OF EDOUARD WERE RELATIVELY MINIMAL. SOME MINOR COASTAL FLOOD DAMAGE WAS REPORTED IN TERREBONNE PARISH LOUISIANA AS EDOUARD PASSED THROUGH THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO.
LITTLE DAMAGE WAS REPORTED ALONG THE UPPER-TEXAS COAST...MOSTLY LIMITED TO FLOODING IN A SMALL NUMBER OF HOMES. RAINFALL AMOUNTS TO NEAR 6 INCHES WERE REPORTED...THE MAXIMUM OCCURRING IN BAYTOWN TEXAS...AND SOME ROADWAYS WERE BRIEFLY UNDER WATER. THERE WERE NO DEATHS REPORTED IN ASSOCIATION WITH EDOUARD.
FAY WAS A LONG-LIVED AND SLOWLY-MOVING TROPICAL STORM THAT SPENT MOST OF ITS LIFE CENTERED NEAR OR OVER LAND...DUMPING HEAVY RAINS THAT PRODUCED DAMAGING AND DEADLY FLOODS OVER PORTIONS OF THE GREATER ANTILLES AND FLORIDA. ORIGINATING FROM A TROPICAL WAVE...FAY FORMED ON 15 AUGUST AS A TROPICAL STORM WITH MAXIMUM WINDS OF ABOUT 40 MPH AS IT CROSSED THE EASTERN COAST OF HISPANIOLA. ITS STRENGTH CHANGED LITTLE AS IT TRAVERSED THAT ISLAND AND THE WINDWARD PASSAGE ON THE FOLLOWING DAY. THE STORM GAINED A LITTLE STRENGTH WITH MAXIMUM WINDS OF ABOUT 50 MPH ON 17 AUGUST AS ITS CENTER PASSED JUST OFFSHORE THE SOUTHERN COAST OF EASTERN CUBA.
RESPONDING TO A BREAK IN A SUBTROPICAL RIDGE OVER FLORIDA...FAY TURNED NORTH-NORTHWESTWARD OVER CENTRAL CUBA THE NEXT DAY. MAXIMUM WINDS INCREASED TO ABOUT 60 MPH AS THE STORM MOVED INTO THE FLORIDA STRAITS...AND THE CENTER OF THE CYCLONE PASSED OVER THE LOWER FLORIDA KEYS LATE ON 18 AUGUST. FAY TURNED NORTHEASTWARD ON 19 AUGUST...MAKING LANDFALL EARLY THAT DAY ON THE SOUTHWESTERN COAST OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA AT CAPE ROMANO WITH MAXIMUM WINDS OF 60 MPH. AFTER MOVING INLAND...FAY UNUSUALLY STRENGTHENED...EXHIBITING WHAT RESEMBLED A CLASSICAL EYE IN RADAR AND SATELLITE IMAGERY...AND IT REACHED ITS PEAK INTENSITY OF ABOUT 65 MPH AS IT PASSED OVER THE WESTERN SHORES OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE. IN CONTRAST...DURING 20-23 AUGUST...CONTINUED INTERACTION WITH THE LANDMASS OF NORTHERN FLORIDA PREVENTED STRENGTHENING...AND FAY'S MAXIMUM WINDS REMAINED 50-60 MPH DURING MOST OF THAT PERIOD. THE CENTER OF FAY MADE TWO BRIEF REAPPEARANCES OVER WATER...OFF THE NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA COAST
ON 20-21 AUGUST...AND OVER APALACHEE BAY EARLY ON 23 AUGUST. UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES...FAY HEADED SLOWLY WEST-NORTHWESTWARD OVER THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE ON 23 AUGUST...FINALLY WEAKENING TO A DEPRESSION EARLY THE NEXT DAY. FAY REMAINED A DEPRESSION FOR THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVED SLOWLY OVER THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...AND EVENTUALLY DEGENERATED INTO A REMNANT LOW OVER NORTHERN ALABAMA ON 26 AUGUST. DUE TO FAY'S VERY SLOW MOTION...STORM-TOTAL RAINFALL AMOUNTS IN SOME AREAS WERE STAGGERING...INCLUDING A FEW LOCATIONS IN EAST-CENTRAL FLORIDA THAT RECEIVED MORE THAN TWO FEET OF RAIN.
FAY'S RAIN-INDUCED FLOODS CAUSED SIGNIFICANT DAMAGES AND WERE DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR NUMEROUS DEATHS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC...HAITI...AND FLORIDA. HOWEVER...FINAL FATALITY TOTALS AND DAMAGE COST ESTIMATES HAVE NOT YET BEEN COMPILED.
GUSTAV WAS A MAJOR HURRICANE ORIGINATING FROM A TROPICAL WAVE THAT EMERGED FROM THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA ON 14 AUGUST. THE WAVE FIRST SHOWED SIGNS OF ORGANIZATION ON 18 AUGUST. HOWEVER...DEVELOPMENT DID NOT BEGIN IN EARNEST UNTIL THE SYSTEM WAS OVER THE SOUTHEASTERN CARIBBEAN SEA ON 24 AUGUST. A TROPICAL DEPRESSION FORMED ON 25 AUGUST ABOUT 260 MILES SOUTHEAST OF PORT AU PRINCE HAITI.
THE DEPRESSION STRENGTHENED RAPIDLY AS IT MOVED NORTHWESTWARD... BECOMING A TROPICAL STORM LATER THAT DAY. GUSTAV BECAME A HURRICANE EARLY ON 26 AUGUST AND MADE LANDFALL LATER THAT DAY ON THE SOUTHWESTERN PENINSULA OF HAITI AS A CATEGORY 1 HURRICANE. THE CYCLONE MOVED SLOWLY WESTWARD JUST NORTH OF THE SOUTHWESTERN PENINSULA OF HAITI ON 27 AUGUST...THEN TURNED WEST-SOUTHWESTWARD EARLY ON 28 AUGUST. GUSTAV RESUMED A WESTWARD MOTION LATER THAT DAY AND MOVED OVER JAMAICA AS A TROPICAL STORM. ON 29 AUGUST...GUSTAV TURNED NORTHWESTWARD AND RE-INTENSIFIED INTO A HURRICANE AS IT APPROACHED THE CAYMAN ISLANDS.
THE CYCLONE PASSED THROUGH THE CAYMAN ISLANDS EARLY ON 30 AUGUST AS A CATEGORY 1 HURRICANE...AND RAPIDLY INTENSIFIED INTO A MAJOR HURRICANE LATER THAT DAY. GUSTAV MADE LANDFALL IN THE CUBAN PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO NEAR PUNTA CARRAGUA LATE ON 30 AUGUST AS A STRONG CATEGORY 4 HURRICANE WITH MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS NEAR 150 MPH. GUSTAV EMERGED INTO THE SOUTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO EARLY ON 31 AUGUST AS A CATEGORY 3 HURRICANE AND ACCELERATED NORTHWESTWARD ACROSS THE GULF.
IT MADE ITS FINAL LANDFALL NEAR COCODRIE LOUISIANA ON 1 SEPTEMBER AS A CATEGORY TWO HURRICANE. AFTER LANDFALL...GUSTAV WEAKENED TO A TROPICAL DEPRESSION OVER NORTHWESTERN LOUISIANA ON 2 SEPTEMBER...THEN BECAME EXTRATROPICAL OVER THE MID-MISSISSIPPI VALLEY ON 4 SEPTEMBER. THE GUSTAV REMNANT LOW WAS ABSORBED OVER THE CENTRAL GREAT LAKES ON 5 SEPTEMBER.
GUSTAV LEFT A LONG TRAIL OF DEATH AND DESTRUCTION. MAJOR WIND AND STORM SURGE DAMAGE OCCURRED DURING GUSTAV'S LANDFALL IN CUBA... WHILE HEAVY RAINS IN HAITI CAUSED DESTRUCTIVE MUDSLIDES. STRONG WINDS...HIGH STORM SURGES...AND HEAVY RAINS ALSO CAUSED DAMAGE IN LOUISIANA...ALTHOUGH MONETARY ESTIMATES ARE NOT AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME. THE CURRENT ESTIMATE OF THE DEATH TOLL FROM GUSTAV INDICATED BY MEDIA REPORTS IS 122...OF WHICH AT LEAST 75 OCCURRED IN HAITI.
HOWEVER...THIS ESTIMATE IS HIGHLY UNCERTAIN DUE TO THE SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS OF HANNA AND IKE ON THE AREAS AFFECTED BY GUSTAV...AND THE DIFFICULTIES OF DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT DEATHS.
HANNA FORMED FROM A TROPICAL WAVE THAT MOVED OFF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA ON 19 AUGUST. ASSOCIATED SHOWER AND THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY GRADUALLY INCREASED AS THE WAVE PROGRESSED WESTWARD ACROSS THE ATLANTIC...AND ON 26 AUGUST THE WAVE SPAWNED AN AREA OF LOW PRESSURE ABOUT 550 MILES EAST-NORTHEAST OF THE NORTHERN LEEWARD ISLANDS.
ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT DURING THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS LED TO THE FORMATION OF A TROPICAL DEPRESSION ABOUT 350 MILES EAST-NORTHEAST OF THE NORTHERN LEEWARD ISLANDS ON 28 AUGUST. THE DEPRESSION BECAME A TROPICAL STORM SIX HOURS LATER. HANNA MOVED BETWEEN WEST-NORTHWEST AND NORTHWEST OVER THE NEXT SEVERAL DAYS...PASSING A COUPLE HUNDRED MILES NORTH OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS AND PUERTO RICO.
PERSISTENT VERTICAL WIND SHEAR FROM AN UPPER-LEVEL LOW TO THE WEST OF HANNA KEPT THE STORM FROM SIGNIFICANTLY STRENGTHENING. HANNA BRIEFLY REACHED AN INTENSITY OF 60 MPH EARLY ON THE 31 AUGUST... BUT WEAKENED SLIGHTLY BEFORE THE CONCLUSION OF THE MONTH. AT THE END OF AUGUST...HANNA WAS LOCATED ABOUT 150 MILES NORTH OF GRAND
NAME DATES MAX WIND (MPH) DEATHS
TS EDOUARD 3- 6 AUG 65 0
TS FAY 15-26 AUG 65 *
MH GUSTAV 25 AUG- 150 122
TS HANNA 28 AUG- 60
MH DENOTES MAJOR HURRICANE...CATEGORY 3 OR HIGHER ON THE SAFFIR-
SIMPSON HURRICANE SCALE. * DENOTES INCOMPLETE DATA
NOTE...DATES BASED ON COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME (UTC)
HISPANIOLA...PUERTO RICO...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS TONIGHT.